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人教版高中英语必修三语法总结

编辑: 王树春 2020-09-02 09:47:26 阅读 12120

高中英语必修三语法主要考点有情态动词、名词性从句、同位语从句等,下面是具体的高中英语必修三语法,仅供参考。

高中英语必修三语法

英语必修三有哪些语法要学

考点一 情态动词(unit 1,unit 2)

一、情态动词的特点:

1.没有人称和数的变化。

2. 有些情态动词有过去式的变化:

e.g. will → would , can → could , may→ might , dare → dared

二、情态动词的否定式:

情态动词+ not +动词原形can not: can't , must not: mustn't , need not : needn't

三、情态动词的用法及相互区别, 是考试的内容之一

1. can , be able to be able to 表示经过努力后, 能够做到; be able to 有多种形式的变化。

can

1). 表示体力或脑力方面的能力;

2). 表示允许、可能性。

could 是can的过去式, 表示过去有能力及过去存在的可能性 ; 用于疑问句表示委婉地提出问题。

1) The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get out. (NMET 97 )

A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to

2) -Will you stay for lunch?

-Sorry, __. My brother is coming to see me. (NMET99)

A. I mustn't B. I can't C. I needn't D. I won't

点击查看:高中英语必修三知识点总结

2.may 表示询问或说明一件事可不可做; 表示某事有可能发生。might是may的过去式; 用在疑问中比may委婉、客气。

1) -May I take this book out of the reading-room?

-No, you mustn't. ( Yes, you may.)

2) -Might I make a suggestion? -Yes, you may.

3. must

1). 表示必须要做的事: 必须

2) 表示很有把握的推断: 一定, 准是。have (has)to : have (has)got to 必须, 不得不。过去式: had to

3) -Must I get to the station before three o'clock?

-Yes, you must. ( No, you needn't. )

4) I'm afraid you will have to wait a while.

5) She must be in the classroom now.

6) Mary ____ be in Paris, I saw her in town only a few minutes ago. (NMET 94)

A. mustn't B. shouldn't C. can't D. may not

4. shall

1) 在疑问句中, 用于第一、三人称表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请求。

2) 用于二、三人称,表示说话人给对方的 命令、警告、允诺等概念。

1) - Shall I place an order with you now? -No, you needn’t.

-Shall he turn down the radio a bit? -

Yes, please.(No, please don't.)

2) You shall have the English book as soon as I finish it.

3) Everything that he owns shall be taken away from him.

4) Your brother seldom comes to see you, ____?

A. does he B. doesn't he C. will he D. isn't he

5) It's a fine day. Let's go fishing, ____?

A. won't we B. will we

C. don't we D. shall we

5. should 应该 ; 应当

1) You should listen to the doctor's advice.

2) You should study the article carefully.

6. will, would

1) 在疑问句中用于第二人称,表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问。用would语气更加婉转。

2) will 表示现在的习惯性动作或状态; would 表示过去的习惯性动作或状态。

3) will 用于各种人称, 表示 意志、意愿、决心、允诺; would 表示过去时间的 意志、意愿、......。

(1) Don't smoke in the meeting room, ___ you?

A. do youB. will you C. can you D. could you

-Will you come with me? -Yes, I will.(I am sorry , I can't.)

(2) -Would you tell us something about yourself? -Yes, I will.

(3) - It's my birthday tomorrow. Don't forget to come to my party.

- _____ .

A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven'

7. ought to 应该; 应当

1) You oughtn't to smoke too much.

2) She ____ for what she has done.

A. ought to praise B. ought be praised

C. ought to have praised D. ought to be praise

8. dare 1. dare to come 2. dare come

1) He dare not tell the truth.

2) He doesn't dare to come out at night.

3) I don't know whether he ____ try.

A. dare B. needs C. wants D. is allowed

9. need

1). 作为情态动词:必须

2). 作为实义动词: 需要

A.主语是人 need( to do something ; to be done by somebody)

B. 主语是事物 need ( doing; to be done)

1) -Do they need to take any books with them?

-No, they don't need to.

2) -Need we buy any new equipment? -No, we needn't.

3) This farm tool needs repairing.

This farm tool needs to be repaired.

4) -Shall I tell John about it ?

- No, you ___ . I've told him already.

A. needn't B. wouldn't

C. mustn't D. shouldn't

5) It's a fine day. You ____ take a raincoat with you.

A. can't B. mustn't

C. needn't D. may not

情态动词 + 不定式的完成式是高考的考试要点

1、must have done,“一定做过/一定已经...”,表示对过去情况极大把握地推测,仅用于肯定句

2、may/might have done 也许做过某事(推测);本来可以做某事却没做

3、can't have done 为否定句或疑问句,对过去的推测“不可能,一定没做过某事”

could have done本来可以做某事却没做

4. needn’t have done 表示”不必要做某事,但做了”,而needn’t do 则表示”不必做(也没做)”

5.、ought to /should have done 表示”本来应当做的却没做”

oughtn’t / shouldn’t have done 本来不应该做某事却做了

6、would/could/might/should + have done 用来表示与过去事实相反的虚拟语气

7、would rather have done 表示”当时宁愿做了某事”,否定形式:would rather not have done e.g. If I had been free that day, I would have gone with you.

8、would like/love to have done 表示” 本想做某事” 而实际上未做。

考点二 名词性从句( unit 3, unit 4 )

主语从句

名词性从句 宾语从句

表语从句

同位语从句

①That the college wiU take in more new students this year is true.今年这所大学将招收更多新生是真的。

②Whether he can finish his task on time is of great importance.他是否能按时完成任务非常重要。

特别提示

(1)if不能引导主语从句。

(2)形式主语it替代主语从句。常见的it替代主语从句的句式主要有以下几种:

A.It+系动词+形容词+that从句。如:

It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure.

注: 在句型 “It is important (necessary, strange, natural) that .... ” 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should + 动词原形

It’s necessary that we should have a walk now.

B.It+系动词+名词+that从句。如:

It is our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.我们的希望是双方能朝着和平的方向发展。

注: 在It is demanded/suggested/ordered/required….that-clause句型中从句用(should )+动词原型

It is demanded that we should work out a plan.

C.It+be+v.ed形式+that从句。如:

It is announced that the plan has been successfully carried out.据宣布计划已经顺利实施。

注: 在 It is a pity/a shame/ no wonder that…..句型中从句也常用(should )+动词原型

It’s a pity that you (should) miss a good chance

2.连接代词引导

①What we can’t get seems better than what we already have.我们得不到的东西似乎比我们拥有的东西好。

②who the letter was from is still unknown.这封信是谁寄出的还不清楚。

③Whichever of you gets here first will get the prize.你们当中第一个到达这里的人将获得奖项。

3.连接副词引导

①How acupuncture reduces and relieves pain is unclear.针灸是如何减轻和解除疼痛的还不清楚。

②why dinosaurs suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery.恐龙为什么突然消失了还是个谜。

①I think(that)you should turn to the teacher for help.我认为你应该向老师寻求帮助。

②I don’t know if/whether he still lives here after so many years.我不知道这么多年后他是否还住在这儿。

特别提示

whether/if都意为“是否”。一般情况下,它们可以互换,口语中常用if,但以下情况中,只能用whether。

(1)与or not紧接连用时。如:

Let me knoW whether or not you can come.请让我知道你是否能来。

(2)作介词的宾语从句时。如:

We are interested in whether you will attend the meeting.我们对你是否参加会议感兴趣。

2.连接代词和连接副词引导

连接代词有what,who,whose,whatever,whichever,whoever等,连接副词有when,where,why,how等。如:

①She asked me whose handwriting was the best in the class.她问我班上谁的书法最好。

②I’11 just say whatever comes into my mind.我想到什么就说什么。

③Do you know when the ancient Olympic Games began?你知道古代的奥运会是什么时间开始的吗?

④I’ve been thinking about how we can make the newspaper more interesting.我一直在考虑如何使我们的报纸更用趣。

3.宾语从句的语序

在宾语从句中要用陈述句语序。如:

①He asked me when we could set out the next day.他问我第二天什么时候可以出发。

②Did you find out where she lost her car?你查出她在哪里丢的车了吗?

4.宾语从句的时态

(1)当主句的谓语动词是一般现在时时,其宾语从句的时态可以是任何适当的时态。如:

①She says(that)she works from Monday to Friday.她说她周一至周五上班。(从句是一般现在时)

②she says(that)she will leave a message on his desk.她说她要在他桌子上留个便条。(从句是一般将来时)

③She says(that)she has never been to Mount Emei.她说她从来没有去过峨眉山。(从句是现在完成时)

(2)当主句的谓语动词是一般过去式时,其宾语从句的时态一般要用适当的过去时态。如:

①He said there were no classes yesterday afternoon.他说昨天下午没有课。(从句是一般过去时)

②He said that he was going to take care of the baby.他说他会去照看这个婴儿。(从句是过去将来时)

③He said that they were having a meeting at that time.他说他们那时正在开会。(从句是过去进行时)

(3)当宾语从句是表达客观真理和规律的句子时,其时态仍旧用一般现在时。如:

①The teacher told us that nothing is difficult if we put our hearts into it.老师告诉我们世上无难事,只怕有心人。

②He said that light travels much faster than sound.他说光比声音传播得快。 特别提示

在使用宾语从句时需要注意下面几点:

(1)动词find,feel,think,consider,make,believe,guess,suppose,assume

等后有宾语补足语时,则需要用it作形式宾语,而将that宾语从句后置。如:

①I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water every day.我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。

②I have made it a rule that I keep diaries.我每天写日记成了惯例。

(2)hate,like,take,owe,have,take for granted等表示“喜欢;痛恨;认为”的动词或动词短语和see to表示“注意,留意”后有宾语补足语时,需要用it作形式宾语而将宾语从句后置。如:

①I hate it when they talk with their mouth full of food.我讨厌他们满嘴食物说话。

②When you start the engine,you must see to it that the car is in neutral.启动发动机时,一定要使汽车的离合器处于空档位置。

(3)介词后的宾语从句。如:

①She is always thinking of how she can do more for others.她总想着如何才能为别人做得更多。

②We are talking about whether we admit students into our club.我们正在讨论是否让学生加入我们的俱乐部。

(4)宾语从句的否定转移。将think,believe,suppose,expect,fancy,imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。如:

①I don’t think I know you.我想我并不认识你。

②I don’t believe he will come.我相信他不回来。

(5) 在于表示命令、建议、要求等一类词后面的宾语从句谓语用 should +动词原形(insist, order, command, suggest, advise, propose, require, request, demand, desire )

We suggested that the meeting (should) be put off.

①The reason for his absence is that he hasn’t been informed.他缺席的原因就是他没接到通知。

②The question remains whether they will be able to help us.问题还是他们能否帮我们。

2.连接代词和连接副词引导

①The problem is who will take charge of this shop.问题是谁将接管这家店铺。

②That is when I realized the importance of journalism.那时我才意识到新闻工作的重要性。

特别提示

(1)as/as if/as though引导的表语从句常跟在特定动词后面,

如seem,appear,look,taste,sound,feel等。常用虚拟形式,即表示与现

在事实相反,用过去式;与过去事实相反用过去完成式 (had done).如:

①It sounds as if someone was knocking at the door.听上去好像有人在敲门。

②He speaks/ spoke as if he had known about it

(2)当主句的主语是reason时,表语从句一般由that引导,这种用法常见于句型The reason why…is that…。如:The reason why he came late was that he got up late.他来得晚是因为起床晚了。

考点3 同位语从句

同位语从句在句子中作某一名词的同位语,一般位于该名词之后,说明该名词的具体内容。这些名词常见的有idea,fact,news,hope,belief,thought,doubt,promise,suggestion,order等。

1.通常用连词that引导同位语从句,that无词义,也不作句子成分,但不能省略。注意从句用陈述句语序。如:

①They expressed the hope that we would go and visit Shanghai again.他们表示希望我们再去访问上海。

②I have no idea that she quit her present job.我不知道她辞掉了现在的工作。

③Give me your promise that you will come to our party this evening.答应我,你今天晚上会来参加我们的聚会。

2.同位语从句还可以用whether,when,where,why,how等引导。如:

①The student asked me the question whether the book Was worth reading.学生问了我这个问题:这本书是否值得一读。

②I have no idea why he was excited at that time.我不知道当时他激动的原因。

1. 在suggestion / proposal / order / plan / advice / idea / request 等名词后的表语和同位语从句中要用“should+动词原形”should可以省略.

My idea is that we (should ) think it over before accepting it.

考点4 名词性从句需要注意的事项

1.that的用法。在主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中that一般不能够省略;在宾语从句中有时可以省略,一般需要注意下面两点:

(1)当that从句作介词宾语时,that不能省略。如:They share little in common except that they are from the same country.除了来自同一个国家之外,他们几乎没有共同点。

(2)当主句谓语动词后接两个或两个以上的宾语从句时,可以省略第一个that,其他的不省略。如:

I believe(that)you’ve done your best and that things will improve.我相信你已经尽力了,而且情况也会得到改善。

2.that与what的区别。that在从句中不能够充当句子成分,也没有含义;what可以在从句中作主语、表语、宾语或定语,意思是”什么,……的事情”。如:

①The hope that he may recover is not gone yet.他会康复的希望没有消失。(that不充当成分,也无含义)

②What he said proved to be true.他所说的话证明是正确的。(what作said的宾语,可以翻译为“……的话”)

3.定语从句与同位语从句的区别。定语从句是从句对其先行词的修饰或限制;而同位语从句是对从句前面的抽象名词作进一步的说明和解释。如:

①The news that our team has won the game was true.我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。(同位语从句,补充说明news到底是一个什么消息)

②The news that he told me yesterday was true.昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。(定语从句,news在从句中作told的宾语)

③I made a promise that if anyone set me free 1 would make him very rich.我许诺如果谁让我自由,我就让他非常富有。

(同位语从句,补充说明promise的内容)

④The mother made a promise that pleased all her children.妈妈许下了一个令她的孩子们高兴的诺言。(定语从句,promise在从句中作pleased的主语)

如何学好高中英语语法

我是一个高考的过来人,高考成绩129分,平时大考碰运也考过130+的分数。首先我想请阁下明白一个道理冰冻三尺非一日之寒,所以坚持很重要,英语是一门很看重积累的科目。

虽然我高考已经好多年了,而且今年即将大学毕业,踏入社会。但英语一直没有丢,英语一直是我的排头兵!我对英语的自信还有,我觉得学好英语不难,重要的是你要有恒心,急躁冒进,三天打渔两天晒网都是不行的。在这里我就毛遂自荐一下我的学习方法吧:

首先先你要端正心态,不要急躁,,你做你自己的事,这样才能静下心来学习。要成为英语高手就必须比别人走更多的路,做更多的事。你应该明白一个事实,英语是单词和语法的综合,所以单词和语法都要拿下。

其次,对于单词,有如下几种方法,第一个,是加强记忆的频度,也就是说,早上记了几个,隔几个小时又看一次,总之一天之内,记忆的间隔不要太长,否则你辛苦积累的记忆会随着时间的延长而淡化,第二个,是可以根据自己的理解编顺口溜,比如good morning 是狗摸你…(见笑了)…,第三个,最重要的是,记单词的时候,不要忘了阅读,一边记单词,一边看文章,这样可以把孤立的单词串联起来,记忆的效果会加倍,第四个。我建议你记单词要分门别类记忆,要形成一个意群,比如,重要性用magnitude magnificence ,表示非常,大大地有exceedingly,tremendously,extremely……这样做在你写作时,是十分有好处的,写作时不要尽写一些低级词汇,你要写高级词汇,比如重要性写magnitude,许多写a multitude of 或者handsome。

再次,是语法。学习语法,首先要明白什么是主谓宾定状补,什么是系动词,什么是直接宾语,间接宾语,这些是学习语法的基础,语法是房子,主谓宾定状补等是沙石砖瓦。然后就要多做一些语法专项练习,并在此过程中不断总结,并时时回顾那些了解,那些依然不理解,需要注意的是,那些不理解的一定要花时间弄清楚,否则对自己的不负责将会导致英语语法一知半解的结局!

这对于想成为英语高手的人来说,是十分不利的!(注:本人从开始时不知主谓宾,到熟练掌握语法,把语法书看了不下二十遍,书都翻烂了!莫笑本人愚笨……)

此外,对于完形填空以及阅读理解,那就只能靠平时的练习了,在这个过程中,你要时时总结,纵深对比,千万不要陷入题海战术只做题,不总结的误区当中。在做题的过程中,你把各种体型都总结了一遍,积累了丰富的经验,而且你还提升了自己的阅读速度,一举两得,所以做题是很重要的!

其实,完形填空无非就是单项选择加语境分析,也就是说,做完形填空你的语法要好,而且你要积累比较多的固定搭配,短语,特殊用法等,完形填空的语法还是很重要的!对于阅读,我个人感觉是,纯粹是个人经验积累多少的问题,只有保证一定的练习量,你才能用质的提高!

最后,我建议你,平时读报,或者做题的时候,发现有好的句子好的词汇,你要抄下来,长期下来,你的作文会有提高的,需要说明的是,这个提高过程可能很缓慢,但是最后能收到很好的效果,以前25分的作文我都能保证在21-23这个级别,靠的就是对语法的熟练掌握和积累了许多较高级的词汇,句型,句子。

我个人的理解是,在你的语法达到基本不会出错的程度上,作文便应该以词汇取胜,因为在这个层次上,大家的语法都差不多,没什么变化,唯一有变化的就是你的词汇!给你打个比方吧,很多想到“许多”就用many,但是你别忘了many a ;handsome;massive,innumerable;很多人想到“专家”就写expert,但很少人会想到specialist,很多人在想到“擅长”这词,就写be good at ,却不知还有更高级的表达法:be expert at 或者excel in ……高手和庸才,就体现在这些细微的差别上 !

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